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  OPERATION JUST CAUSE -- Contents                                                             [p1 of 1]  

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AMERICA'S LEGACY IN PANAMA

PANAMA CANAL TREATY TRANSITION

END OF AN ERA

U.S. MILITARY IN PANAMA

U.S. MILITARY IN REGION-History

LIFE AFTER SOUTHCOM

SOUTHCOM TODAY

PANAMA

COMMENTARY

By WHO / By Others

OTHER TOPICS
BASES-LIST/MAP

U.S. MILITARY PRESENCE IN PANAMA (1903-1999)

HISTORY

SENIOR MILITARY COMMANDS AND COMMANDERS 

MAJOR SUBORDINATE COMMANDS 

FORCES / UNITS

CHANGING MISSIONS AND STRATEGIES

MAJOR EVENTS

-- Panama Canal Treaty Implementation (1979-1999)

Operation Just Cause (Dec 20, 1989 - Jan 12, 1990)

-- Operation Promote Liberty (Jan 12, 1990 - mid-1994)

-- Operation Safe Haven (Sept 1994-Feb 1995)

EXERCISES / OPERATIONS

-- Engineering Exercises (Fuertes Caminos;  New Horizons)

-- Other Exercises

MAJOR INSTITUTIONS

-- U.S. Army School of the Americas

-- Inter-American Air Forces Academy

-- Naval Small Craft Instruction and Technical Training School (NAVSCIATTS)

-- Army Jungle Operations Training Center

-- Army Tropic Test Center

-- Inter-American Geodetic Survey

MILITARY STEWARDSHIP OF ENVIRONMENT

VIGNETTES

  

(UNDER CONSTRUCTION --  MORE TO COME)

 

OPERATION JUST CAUSE

INVASION OF PANAMA (December 20, 1989)   

 

 BACKGROUND -- CHRONOLOGY OF KEY EVENTS AND ACTIONS

Key Events - Political Crisis 1987-Dec 20,1989 - Summary
Crisis in Panama (1987-Dec 20, 1989) 
Panama Defense Forces Sponsored Incidents of Harassment and Intimidation Against U.S. military community and Ensuing Treaty Violations
Public Announcements of Initiation of Just Cause
Strategic and Tactical Objectives and 27 Targets at H-Hour
Key Events / Objectives - Operation Just Cause - Dec 20, 1989 - Jan 12, 1990
PARTICIPATING FORCES
List 
ARTICLES, PAPERS, AND DOCUMENTS

Operations Just Cause Panama, Ronald H. Cole, Joint History Office, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1995.

pdf format GO TO

Operation Just Cause and the Principles of War, Lieutenant Colonel William C.  Bennett, US Army (now retired), Military Review, March 1991.

pdf format GO TO

 html format GO TO    

The Panama Invasion Revisited:  Lessons for the Use of Force in the Post Cold War Era, Eytan Gilboa, Political Science Quarterly (Volume 110, Number 4, p.539),   Political Science Quarterly, 1995.

An overlooked hero ... Few have heard of Gen. Marc Cisneros, but he deserves much of the credit for the success of Operation Just Cause ..., David Adams, St. Petersburg Times, published December 20, 1999.
Panama:  Operations Just Cause by Anthony Gray and Max Manwaring, chapter 2 of Policing the New World Disorder : Peace Operations and Public Security, edited by Robert B. Oakley, Michael J. Dziedzic, Eliot M. Goldberg, Published by NDU Press (National Defense University)  
ISSUES

Panamanian Casualties during Operation Just Cause
OPERATION PROMOTE LIBERTY -- Follow-On Assistance to Panama
Summary
Key Events - Summary

WHERE ARE THEY NOW?  

Key U.S. Participants
Panamanian

 

 

 

 

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  Site developed, owned and maintained by 

William H. Ormsbee, Jr.  2005-2007

 

 

General Frederick Woerner

Commander in Chief, U.S. Southern Command

(June 1987  - Sept 1989)

Previously

Commanding General, 193d Infantry Brigade (Panama) -- Southern Command's Army component at Fort Clayton

(1982 - 1986)

 

Brig. Gen. Marc Cisneros

Director of J3/Operations, U.S. Southern Command 

(1987 - June 1989)

Maj. Gen. Marc Cisneros Commanding General

U.S. Army South

(June 1989 - July 1990)

 

 

 

 

 

 

President George H.W. Bush

(January 20, 1989 - January 20, 1993)

 

Richard Cheney Secretary of Defense

 and 

General Colin Powell Chairman,  Joint Chiefs of Staff

 

 

 

General Manuel Antonio Noriega

Commander of the Panama Defense Forces and Dictator of Panama

(1983-Dec. 20, 1989)

(below)  Noriega in custody of DEA after surrendering to U.S. Forces Jan. 3, 1990.

Final Destination - a Miami jail